The Black Russian Terrier: Problems of modern breeding...

So it was possible, that in year 2000 15 years are executed from the moment I was engaged in breeding of Blackies. Term is insignificant in historical scales, but for the young breed -enormous. On my eyes was born, has grown and gone several generations of black terriers. And, probably, the problems which I met excite not only me.

Unfortunately, modern breeding more and more resembles to me a Brownian motion of molecules by the randomness and inconsistency. Maybe in epoch of triumph of our breed on the international exhibitions, such announcement will seem too courageous to someone, but I nevertheless attempt to justify this judgement.

What is mass breeding of the black terriers today?

I will dare to say, that this is breeding concerning the quantitative signs. Size, format, length of a head, strap of a breast and wrist, intensity of a pigmentation - this is the brief and incomplete but most frequently used set of the desired qualities. At once let's decide that in this sectional article we speak only about the exterrier, and the problems of selection on working qualities constitute a separate theme for talk and 1 conscientiously do not mention them. The separate quality signs. like the facture of the hair, constitute only small amount from total number of the signs being selected and if there is any desire they could be described in quantitative values. All abovementioned also allows me to assert, that the today's breeding is a work with the quantitative signs. I know that the majority of the owners never look at the dogs as on a gang of the signs or material for selection. I do not treat to the pragmatists seeing in a dog only centimeters and kilograms either. But the comprehension of the fact that each animal is the personality, does not release us of necessity to respect the laws of such science, as genetics and such art as breeding animal.

It is possible to approach the problems of breeding in various ways. It is possible to work with separate animal, aiming to receive the greatest possible quality of descendants in each litter. At such approach the choice of the couple is subordinated to elimination of defects of the particular animal. Such approach is typical for the owners of small-sized kennels and a large part of common breeders.

Other approach implies activity with a population. The priorities here are displaced a bit and the average quality level of the population in whole (not the level of separate species) becomes the main criteria, having in mind the capability of its increase, i.e. tribal potential. These directions of cultivation do not exclude but supplement one another, but methodically they are based on a little bit different principles.

I will try to explain this statement with an example. With the same live-stock of 10 bitches you can to the following:

Having determined the faults of each dog, select most suitable males (in the personal order), with the purpose to receive maximum quality of the descendants in the first generation. The long-term perspectives in this case are seldom undertaken in calculation. Through some generations of such breednig the population will consist of numerous animals of high quality, which most likely will be quite different. The genealogy of such a population has all chances to become extremely diverse and confused.

Having determined the most significant defects, appropriute to the majority of dogs of current breed, constitute the plan of breeding in order to replace bloods bearing these defects with bloods of dogs of a desirable type in the terms of several generations. At such approach chances to receive a plenty of the champions are much lower, but the average level of the population will grow stably, the dogs will be more of the same type. The tribal potential of such animals is more predicted, and the breading yields to analysis and planning easier.

In breeding both approaches should be used, but it is necessary to mark, that the second approach presents more stringent requests to the breeder. And it will be not possible to bypass this limitation, as such approach is the only one that allows to create the fundamental basis for long-lived perfecting of the breed. Unfortunately, in Russia there are no conditions for such work today and it seems that the situation will persist. What conditions we are speaking about? They are:

Availability of a unified methodology for estimation of the tribal manufacturers.

Availability of the database on the tribal manufacturers, accessible for breeders.

Determination of a number of selectional and genetic parameters according to the breeding criteria and their usage in cultivation.

Now we shall consider these conditions in detail. As it is known. the process of breeding can be subdivided into two processes:

Selecting the animals for further breeding.

Choosing the pairs within the selected animals.

Both processes are based on the forecast of outcome. Really, at sampling the selector chooses between all accessible animals and chooses the ones that will give the best descendants, in his judgement, and, therefore, forecasts outcome.

The selector then tries to choose animals to constitute a pair to receive maximum quality of descendants and, therefore, forecast of outcome again takes place. While working with a separate animal, error of the forecast have local value, but the improper selection of the male manufacturers while working with a population can have fatal consequences. Apparently, that the random forecast here is invalid. Let's try to understand, on what factors such forecast should be based. The classic science about breeding teaches, that the estimation of animals should precede the selection. In any tutorial on breednig it is possible to find, that there are following kinds of an estimation of the manufacturers:

On the animal's efficiency. In our case it is possible to understand this as exhibition outcomes and working qualities of evaluated dogs, and expressiveness of any of the features considered as object of selection activity. For example, the length of a head or altitude in withers of the dog, when you decide whether to include it in the breed core or not. The estimation on the animal's efficiency is based on phenotypical features of a proband *.

On efficiency of the side cognates. Same, as own efficiency, but defined for the side cognates - sibs (brothers and sister), half-sibs (brothers and sister on one of the parents) and more long-distance. The estimation is based also on the analysis of the phenotype. The precision of such estimation depends on quantity of the animals involved in process, degrees of their cognation and the factor of hereditability of the feature on which the selection is conducted.

On derivation. In this method the estimation is based on the analysis of a family tree of a proband. The attention is paid to grandparents - whether they posess a feature being selected and the degree of it. The attention is also paid to a degree of recurrence of the feature during a number of generations, on saturation of a family tree by outstanding grandparents.

On quality of descendants. A unique method of the estimations permitting to evaluate the manufacturer on a heredity, which already has been shown. This method allows to evaluate the manufacturer most precisely, but it is not dispossessed of a number of defects. I think you will agree, that it is late to get convinced that the manufacturer was awful at the time when about 20-30 puppies have been received from him and brought up. As well as late to tear your hair, when it is become clear, that the manufacturer was remarkable...

Complex (integrated) estimation. It is a combination all or several of methods mentioned above, and it is the most precise method of an estimation of the manufacturers.

But a problem arises: «Well, and what profits we shall receive, if we shall make all these estimations?» And we shall receive a capability to precisely forecast outcomes of breeding work. There is a formula of determination of expected effect of selection: Эc= H2 x Sd, where H is a factor of an inheriting of the sign, and Sd - selection differential. What is the meaning of the arguments and how can they be defined- we shall consider below. The sense of the formula in whole is that the answer of the population on each clock tick ** of selection will be the more, the more heritable conditionality of the feature is and the more rigidly the selection was conducted. And now answer: what is the heritable conditionality of such feature as a strap of a breast? It is possible to formulate a question in the other way: «Mow much (in percentage) the strap of a breast depends on the genetic factors, and how much - from the living conditions, iceding and other genetic factors?» Do not try too hard. The majority of the sane people will experience difficulties with the unequivocal answer to this question. Moreover, there is no one valid answer to this question, as the factor of an inheriting is a nonconstant value. It is various in miscellaneous populations, but in each particular case it is possible to calculate it. This enables making the forecast, to not guess «lucky-unlucky» but to plan outcome. I will give examples of such planning. If the factor of inheriting a length of a head in given population constitutes 0,15 (or 15 %), it signifies that variability of the sectional feature depends on the heritable information only on 15 % and on 85 % from other factors, so the selection to this feature will be ineffective and there is no sense to turn down animals, which are good on other parameters, but having hardly more short head, since the descendants of these dogs will not differ reliablly from the descendants of other dogs of this population. I want to notice that I'm speaking about an average length of a head. And for those who think that the example is irrelevant and the length of a head can not have such heritable conditionality, I will tell that digit 15% is not random, and is determined for substantial population and it tells about high genetic homogeneity of a sectional population to this feature.

The examples can be given ad infinitum, but I think that the importance of knowledge of the above named arguments is of no doubt any more. A problem is only that for defining the arguments we need the results of above-mentioned estimations. And the results should be expressed in digits, not emotions. I have heard such a result of estimation of one manufacturer on quality of descendants: «Wow, I like its children so much!» And when I asked him why he liked them, I have heard: «Why! They are so beautiful!» I should say very smart estimation of the manufacturer! So, we decided that: «the breeding is based on the forecast» -«the forecast should be based on estimation»- «for a precise estimation it is necessary to use a complex of methods». And what takes place in life? Here picture diverse.


The estimation on the dog's efficiency is actually made with the bare eye, and mainly the ex-terrier and working qualities are estimated. It is so surprising, because, as was spoken above, the selection is conducted to the quantitative features, i.e. to the features, which can be precisely measured. I am far from offering to arm the experts on the exhibition with measuring instruments. It is not their business, and the victory in a ring should not be determined by quantity of centimeters or kilograms. But for breeder it is simply necessary. The experiment put by the writer has shown that usage of objective methods of an estimation of the quantitative signs in the selection activity gives effect of selection, which is almost 30 % higher, than the bare-eye estimation. It signifies, that usage of biometric methods allows to speed up selection process considerably. And isn't it what we want?

Now imagine that you have decided to make measurements of all animal, which you plan to use in breeding. You will not encounter any problem while working with your live-stock, but the day of the exhibition came. You noticed several nonresident males and have desired to try to measure them. What do you think will happen? Sure you're right, in 80% of cases you will be told where you should go to with your centimeter. The most educated owners will advise to read advertising in some periodical or will say something like: «Our boy is 78 in withers, head 35, metacarpus 16, strap of a breast 105, startling children, and he regularly tears figurants on the training ground!». To trust or not to trust,- it's a matter of yours, but I do not advise to. The matter is not that the majority of owners are not professionals and like to exaggerate. Simply there is no unified method of conducting the measurment procedure and the miscellaneous people meter slightly variously, and it will affect the certainty of outcome. The conclusion: The measuring procedure should be conducted by professionals. And conducted under the definite and affirmed method of application during realization of a integrated estimation, irrespective of the fact how the procedure will be referred to, - kerung, bounting or somehow else. The outcomes of such measurements should be stored in the Tribal book of breed, which is to be published annually. Such procedure is a standart for every agricultural animals and it is not quite clear why it is not present in the most mass kind of animal industries - dog breeding. I have seen the electronic form of the Tribal book of the German shepherds in Germany. And, you know, it impressed me as breeder very much: the information on derivation, basic measurements, data about descendants, results of tests, exhibitions, kerungs, photo of the majority of animals for the last 100 years! The dream of a breeder! And this dream on 20 diskettes is accessible to anyone for just 20 DM. In our country, for some reason, this information is considered a top secret. Are we afraid of the swindlers? And why, for example, in horse-breeding, where the cost of some animals is measured in tens and hundreds thousand, and sometimes even millions dollars, swindlers are not afraid of? It is necessary to struggle with swindlers, but why should it bother common breeders?



The estimation on the side cognates practically misses. Notice that the engaging sibs and hall-sibs to an estimation of a proband allows to increase the precision of an estimation, and consequently also of forecast, in some times! (see. Mihaylov, Cabans, Karatunov, «The Selective-genetic aspects of an estimation of heritable qualities of the animals», Novocherkassk, 1996). So in the laboratory of development of fundamental theory of selection at Donskoy State Academic University, several experiments were conducted. They had their aim to check the efficiency of tribal selection using different methods of an estimation of a proband. The outcomes simply shock! Now the average precision of the forecast using a conventional estimation on animal's efficiency constitutes only 10-12%.

It is, practically, cultivation at random. At the same time the expected effect of selections calculated in units of measurement of the feature when using the combined method is 2-2,5 times higher than the selection by the principle of the dog's own efficiency alone. And it signifies, that the increment of quality, which was planned to reach in two generations, can be reached or even exceeded in one! These data are obtained due to engaging 3 sibs or 10 half-sibs of a proband into the estimation. And I guess It's quite clear that the number of the side cognates can be much higher. Such estimation acquires the special relevance when the work is conducted with the features having low factor of inheriting, and such will be the majority of the features in a well-selected populations based on a high scale of cognation. Here it is necessary to return to the publication of the Tribal book again. Otherwise, where will the breeders take the data about the side cognates? For example, in order to receive the data of measurements of the brothers and sisters for a bitch Ega-Gella (Ruslan-Remak x Geisha) brought from Moscow. it is necessary to go to Irkutsk, where all the dogs from her litter have been taken to several years ago. And this bitch is the Champion of Russia and one of baseline dogs of the population I work with now. And I want to know as much as possible about her heredity. I guess that I am not the only one who expresses such desire.


Estimation on derivation, in accordance with transition to new samples of family trees, becomes more and more inconvenient, because since recently Russian family trees became shorter on one knee not always bear the information about ex-terrier level and working qualities of grandparents. People say that these family trees correspond to European samples. Probably it so, but who has told that it is good? One can see other information generators in Europe (same published Tribal books). And what shall we do in Russia? European breeder can track full derivation of the dog on any quantity of knees back, and what about Russians? Maybe, that's unimportant? You know, the share of blood of the dog in the IV knee makes only 6,25%... But an inbreeding (for example) on Bars (owner Ivanova), frequently gives puppies of black-brown color even if the Bars stands in VI-VII knee! Such inbreeding is considered automatic and frequently is not taken in consideration at all. Further, if a proband is inbreeded V-V, the share of bloods of grandparents will be already 12,5 %, and if this grandparent itself is obtained in an inbreeding, its influence on a proband will be more than influence of dogs of III generation. And what, it is unimportant too?

Fortunately, RFSS has appeared to be more conservative than other federations and until recently gave 4-knee family trees with indications of estimations, titles and results of tests, but now the family trees of RFSS are 3-knee, and there are dogs in them for which neither titles nor training are indicated.

The next grimace of our time are the register family trees. It is higher than any praises! In breed we do concede dogs with such family trees, but derivations we do not write and CAC we do not give. What is more relevant to us, CAC or breed cultivation? If these dogs are bad, why to allow them to join into the breed? And if they suit, how to choose pairs for them, not knowing derivation? The checkmark «register» means that the don is introduced in the Tribal book of the breed, i.e. is registered as animal, inheriting to the breed. And in Europe any breeder who has the Tribal book of the breed can receive all data about this dog which has the unique register number. Why we should be blind or request central departments on each such dog? Or is it easier to do so here, than in Europe?

I do not doubt, that the transition to the simplified family trees was stipulated by serious reasons, but now it should be necessary already to think of making the database containing the information on biometric parameters, level of the exterrier, working qualities and quality of descendants of the manufacturers. Without such database the activity with the breed will be considerably complicated, especially if it is conducted far from capitals. The activity on making such database should be started already now (read « it was necessary to begin a long time ago»), otherwise in a very short time the large array of the data will be irrevocably lost. And I am convinced, that the National Club of the Breed should become the pioneer of such activity. Today such database is not present for one breed in Russia, but if the black terriers become first, it will be the substantial and very considerable help for the breeders of our favorite breed. But let's return to an estimation of the manufacturers.


An Estimation on quality of descendants is not conducted at all, in spite of the fact that it is the most precise method of an estimation of heritable qualities of the manufacturer. This needs to be explained. When I say that the estimation is not conducted I mean that there is no unified officially affirmed method of application of such estimation and there are no criteria for its realization. Unconditionally, all responsible breeders relating to the activity, evaluate the used manufacturers on quality of descendants. A problem that everybody does this in a variety of ways and the received results are impossible neither to compare, nor to treat statistically, it is impossible to extend them, and consequently the general situation describing the manufacturer will not be generated. I will give an example from real life, without giving any real names or nicknames. The selectors A and В discuss outcomes of usage of the manufacturer C.

(A) - It is the fine manufacturer. Among its descendants 70% have an estimation «Perfectly» and there is no one with «Good».

(B) - Among its daughters there is no one, who would be better than the mother. It does not suit as the manufacturer.

Which one is right? It is possible to argue on it until the criteria of estimation of the manufacturers on quality of descendants will be determined and the method of application of such estimation will not be developed.


The bounting which has taken place recently disappeared with its faults and the tribal class "Elite", and this class (under the condition of having the full pedigree and the desire) could have beed easily acquired by almost any dog. Instead of bounting the other (foreign and sophisticated) word have come: kerung. But whatever title we use, all this are versions of a integrated estimation, without which any civilized breeding is generally impossible. Let's see what is necessary today for a blackie to be admitted to the bloodline:

1.The estimation of the exterrier «very good» and not below. As exterrier quality for exhibition dogs are a category of the dog's own efficiency, this estimation is an estimation on own efficiency.

2.Passing the bloodline test, or else, check of behaviour. The behaviour of a dog and its working qualities are also dog's own efficiency, so the estimation for the test is an estimation on own efficiency too.

3.Training. The same as in 1 and 2, and furthermore the main value of a dog as a manufacturer is not the quantity of trainings it has passed, but the ability to study and work.

All this signifies that today we concede a dog in a bloodline only after having evaluated it on the dog's own efficiency, that is, as was spoken above, having 10-12% of the information about its heredity. I am far from offering to complicate a procedure of the tolerance. No, I mean something different. I mean about giving a breeder the capability to evaluate tribal animal with maximum precision. Not to administer but to grant a capability for creativity. Yes, at the primary tolerance we can not have the information on quality of descendants and it is normal, such estimation should be conducted later. But imagine that at the passing of the tribal test, the dog has received T2 on the acoustical phase. What does that mean for the breeder?

Nothing but that the very dog does not like sudden and loud sounds. And what about the situation when the breeder has the information that all dogs from this litter have T2 on this phase? This is a real occasion to muse. And you see we only have added an estimation on the side cognates. Well, and if, having scanned a family tree, we shall find out that the father, grandfathers and the great-grandfathers of this dog had ZKS-3? In this case the fact should be taken into account when choosing the pair for the dog and then carrying out an estimation on quality of descendants. The breeder will pay attention to the attitude of the descendants of this dog to the shot, so he can evaluate his choice. Maybe it is here where working qualities of our dogs are hidden? The example, certainly, is a little far-fetched and in life everything is more complicated than on a paper, but the meaning of this example is to show as everything can be, if we possess the information. This is unreal today because breeders do not possess such information.

So, the procedure of the tolerance in the bloodline should be supplemented by a capability to conduct an integrated estimation of the manufacturers. Now let's consider one more feature of this testing. Having received T2, the manufacturer should pass the test repeatedly each 2 years. But does the procedure of the repeated tolerance differ from primary? No, it doesn't. But sirs! While conducting the test continuously we evaluate animal, whose behaviour differed from the theoretical for the first time it took the test and which already has descendants. So we have capability to evaluate them on quality of this descendants. Is this capability used? No way. A flaw? Yes. What about me, I think that in this case the most important matter is how the manufacturer concerns to shot, but how its children concern to a shot; not how mature, grown-up and well-trained dog defends the owner but how its puppies attempt to do it. And one more. Such estimation should necessarily take into account a level of the second parent. Imagine that we evaluate a male manufacturer having a resultant estimation for the primary tolerance T2 and having a litter of 4. Half of the puppies receives from it got T2 and the other half Tl, while driving the primary tolerance. What does that mean? The male has appeared to be the better manufacturer than it was expected? Wait. These puppies also have mothers. Now imagine that all these mothers had Tl. What does this information tell us? And such information tells us that the male only makes worse the sum of the features describing behaviour. Such repeated test will make sense and will benefit.

Then, puppies from the parents who successfully elapsed such estimation will have the full right on a red family tree with a mark OPR (PTB - perfect tribal breeding), whereas today it is enough to have the parents - champions of Russia and a mark about the passed HD-test (notice, not the conclusions about the absence of a dysplasia but mark about transiting test, which is not the same). I am afraid that in amount of time all above mentioned estimations will be substituted by one «the champion - not the champion» and the bitches Will be paired with wrong males, not the ones who will ensure better quality of descendants but with those who provide red family trees for puppies. You know, the free market is a severe thing. And what is selective in such breeding? The title «The Champion of Russia» is a title for dog's own efficiency, and the dog after obtaining a title doesn't become any better in the sense of breeding. Its children from the first litter can have quite usual family trees, and from the second - red ones, but are they actually better? It seems that today the red pedigree is not the real estimation of true quality of breeding but the pri/е for the owner of the Champion for his patience, forces and money to receive 8 С AC. And I know many owners who, aiming to a title of the Champion of Russia, with ecstasy participate in the exhibitions, receiving I-2 CAC annually and diluting them with ten or even more usual «Perfectly» or even «Very good» marks. But they have the chance that in 4-5 years their good, but outstanding dogs will become the Champions of Russia and their children will dominate in the market of puppies, so their kennels will dominate also. And we. evaluating the manufacturers not in a way it should be done we make the basis of their future domination. But we do have the National Club of the Breed Champions. 'The conditions of obtaining a title are more rigid for them and the quantity of weak dogs among the Champions HKII is very small. But for some reason it seems, that the German shepherds will be "ahead of the entire planet" once again, because OPR is adjudged there only if the parents have Kkl-l, i.e. the maximum outcome for a integrated estimation. I think, that there are enough arguments already that today's breeding is rather far from being regulated.

But the problems are quite certain. The paths of the solution of these problems are also obvious: development of the unified method of applications and assembly-dissemination of information. Now it is possible to speak about how to make it out. In the beginning we shall understand with measurements. There are many measuring techniques, but all of them have common principles:

The measurements are conducted in a standing position.

Animal should be positioned according to the standards for the particular breed.

Animal should stand on a rigid horizontal surface.

For each measurement there is a definite instrument

The measurements are performed several times with small intervals. The average number is considered to be true.

On the basis of these principles it is easy enough to form the method of application, having determined in what age the measurements should be conducted, what measurements should be taken and what indexes arc determined by what instrument. All measurements are written in a personal card, where derivation, exhibition results, tests at integrated estimation, and data about litter are also mentioned. It is desirable to supplement this card with a photo in the exhibition standing and trimming. The sum of personal cards will make the database, which can be published by any of the following ways:
Tribal book or Catalogue of the tribal manufacturers.
Electronic file on diskettes or Database.

Both can be realized with minimum efforts, having paid back the costs on making. Since that the database should be updated and reissued annually. I do not see anything composite in measuring and making pictures of each dog who is participating in the show for the first time, and then to apply these documents to the documents on litter, but if this work is done, we shall have the solid database in 5 years. It is not. necessary to oblige anybody to apply such documents to every litter. There are enough enthusiasts of breed in Russia, who will make this activity without any obligation. What has all chances to turn out to be a serious work is the development of the method of applications and processing of the incoming information by a Tribal commetee, but, in my opinion, it is worth doing. It is also possible not to charge all this job on the National Club of the Breed, but to conduct such activity in the local divisions. It is possible to conduct «running-in» only in one local division, and then to make decisions. I also vote the Northern Caucasus to become the first region to be involved into those changes. Now about an integrated estimation. It should include all above-mentioned estimations and is to be conducted during a transition period (minimum of 4 years) in combination with a standard procedure of the tolerance in a bloodline. It is necessary, as for «running-in» of the method of application, detection of its strong and weak sides, and for collecting the data which is required in case of total transition to this method. The next thing is that we shouldn't hurry with this transition. It will become possible and will benefit only after making the database of a sufficient volume and alter maintenance of its accessibility. Otherwise no estimation on the side cognates, derivation and quality of descendants will be available, and there will be a formal share with "monkey-business" filling of useless papers.

The next very relevant factor of transition to such activity is the proper preparation о I breeders. It is not enough to have the information, it is necessary to know how to use it. Our log-book can help very much here, if apart from the usual information it will conduct regular heading, like "The Breeder School". Maybe this will decrease the number of the statements like: "My male is from the bloodline of Ole-Kassandra-Laik!" (an extract from the telephone talk). Wow! It seems like now we track the bloodlines alter outstanding bitches! No comments.

In summary, as promised, some words about selectional-gcnetic parameters and about sense which they disguise. Everyone knows that children (not depending on how they are similar to their parents) arc never a precise copy of their parents. It is the result of activity of natural gears ensuring such phenomenon as variability. These gears are various in the essence. One have the gene nature and work as though from inside, other concern to the external factors, but exert influence on development of the different features too. Genetically stipulated, for example, is the coloring of fur. So the dog with a genotype AABB will be black both in Vorkuta and in Tashkent, unless in Tashkent the fur will be more a subject to «burn-out». Another business is a thickness of fur. The same dog will be "well-dressed" in a cold climate and mediocrely- in hot. Here the factor of influence on the feature is external - the temperature of air. With simple, so-called genetic signs it is more or less clear: They, basically, arc determined by a genotype, are stable enough even with a variety of external influences and are subject to the laws of Mendel, frequently allowing to determine a genotype according to the phcnotype. It is is much more complicated with the composite signs, which arc shaped under influence of a set of genes and have a polymer inheriting. Such signs (and the overwhelming majority of the quantitative signs with which we work) are not subject to the laws of splitting and (as a rule) do not give the possibility to evaluate a genotype directly by pheno-type. Misunderstanding of this rule is the major reason of disappointment for many breeders. They say: "do count- do not count, all the same''. But this is not like that. The composite signs are subject to the laws, though with some clauses.

As all such features are to a great extent a subject to external influences, it is very important to determine what part of variability of the feature is stipulated by the gene information, and what is determined by environmental conditions. The part of genetic variability is called "factor of an inheriting" and is meant H2. On the value of this parameter depends whether the feature will be good to react to selection (at high H2) or not (at low H2). But this is the main meaning of the parameter H2, which lays on the surface. There is another one. Than more carefully we make the selection within the population, the more carefully turn down the undesirable features, the above genetic homogeneity such population has, and the less meaning has the factor H2. That means that the factor of inheritance can be used to indicate the amount of the bloodline "purity". What for? This allows better planning of breeding, paying more attention to the features which are good for selectioning and not to waste time on those having low H2. The factor H2can be easily calculated if the data about the feature for several descendants is available. There are plenty of ways to calculate it but the analysis of these methods is a subject for separate article. Anyway, it is absolutely clear that using H2gives the breeder a wide range of new possibilities and allows to reach the higher level of quality of his work.

*Proband - animal, passing an estimation
** Clock tick - single-pass realization of a procedure of selection

V. Medvedsky
"Black Terrier ", №1(12), 2000 

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